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Exploring Q235 Steel: Properties, Applications, and More

Q235 steel holds immense significance in China’s steel forming and framework industry. As one of the most widely used materials, Q235 steel offers a balance of strength, affordability, and versatility, making it a popular choice for various applications.

In this article, TMP will delve into the world of Q235 steel, exploring its properties, applications, and comparisons with other steel materials.

What is Q235(Definition)?

Q235 Steel is a carbon structural steel that belongs to the Chinese national standard GB/T 700-2006. It is widely used in various industries due to its excellent mechanical properties and affordability.

Q235 Steel is classified as low-carbon Steel with less than 0.22% carbon content. This classification ensures good weldability and ductility while maintaining sufficient strength.

The naming convention of Q235 steel follows a specific system. The letter “Q” stands for “Qu” in Chinese, which means “yield strength.” The number “235” indicates the minimum yield strength of the Steel, measured in megapascals (MPa). Therefore, Q235 steel has a minimum yield strength of 235 MPa.

By understanding the naming convention of Q235 steel, professionals in the steel forming and framework industry can make informed decisions when selecting materials for their applications.

Physical and Chemical Properties of Q235 Steel

Q235 Steel exhibits various physical and chemical properties contributing to its overall characteristics. Let’s explore these properties in detail:

Physical Properties:

  1. Density: The density of Q235 steel is approximately 7.85 g/cm³, which makes it relatively lightweight and suitable for applications where weight is a consideration.
  2. Melting Point: Q235 steel has a melting point of around 1420-1460°C, allowing it to withstand high-temperature environments.
  3. Thermal Conductivity: Q235 steel has a thermal conductivity of about 51.9 W/m·K, enabling efficient heat transfer in applications that require thermal management.

Chemical Composition:

Q235 Steel has a specific chemical composition that contributes to its mechanical and physical properties. The typical composition is as follows:


Content (% by weight)

Carbon (C)


Silicon (Si)

≤ 0.30

Manganese (Mn)


Phosphorus (P)

≤ 0.045

Sulfur (S)

≤ 0.050

Iron (Fe)

Remaining balance

  • The carbon content in Q235 steel is relatively low, ensuring good weldability and ductility.
  • Silicon acts as a deoxidizer and contributes to the strength and toughness of the material.
  • Manganese enhances the hardenability of Q235 steel, improving its strength and wear resistance.
  • Phosphorus and sulfur, in controlled amounts, help improve machinability.

Contribution to Overall Characteristics:

The physical and chemical properties of Q235 steel work together to provide several key characteristics:

Strength: Q235 steel offers a moderate yield strength, allowing it to withstand substantial loads and pressures.

Ductility: Its low carbon content provides good elasticity, enabling the material to undergo shaping and forming processes without compromising its integrity.

Weldability: Q235 Steel exhibits excellent weldability, making it suitable for various welding techniques and applications.

Machinability: Controlled phosphorus and sulfur levels enhance the machinability of Q235 steel, facilitating machining operations.

Thermal Stability: With its relatively high melting point and thermal conductivity, Q235 steel maintains its structural integrity and performs well under elevated temperatures.

Applications and Uses of Q235 Steel

Q235 steel finds widespread application in the construction and manufacturing industries due to its excellent combination of strength, affordability, and versatility. Let’s explore some of its general applications:

Structural Frameworks and Support Structures:

Exploring Q235 Steel: Properties, Applications, and More

Q235 Steel has been commonly used for structural frameworks and support structures in various construction projects. Its strength and flexibility make it suitable for applications such as:

  • Building frames: Q235 steel is often employed in constructing buildings, including commercial and residential structures, providing the necessary strength and stability.
  • Bridges and highways: Q235 Steel is utilized in constructing bridges and road structures, where its load-bearing capacity and durability ensure the safety and longevity of these critical infrastructure components.
  • Industrial facilities: Q235 steel is well-suited for supporting heavy machinery, equipment, and storage systems in industrial settings.
  • Metal Components: Q235 steel is also widely used in the manufacturing industry to produce various metal components due to its versatility and ease of fabrication. Some notable examples include: Machinery and equipment parts, Automotive components, Furniture, and fixtures

Comparisons and Equivalents

Q235 Steel is often compared to other commonly used steel materials such as A36 (USA ASTM), S235JR (European EN standard), and SS400 (Japanese JIS standard). Let’s explore the similarities and differences between Q235 steel and its counterparts regarding composition, properties, and applications.

Composition and Properties:

  • Q235 Steel is low-carbon Steel with less than 0.22% carbon content. It contains mainly iron (Fe), carbon (C), manganese (Mn), silicon (Si), phosphorus (P), and sulfur (S). Q235 steel offers good weldability, flexibility, and moderate strength.
  • A36 Steel (USA ASTM): A36 steel is a widely used structural steel in the United States. It has a carbon content of up to 0.29% and typically contains elements such as manganese (Mn), phosphorus (P), sulfur (S), and silicon (Si). A36 steel shares similarities with Q235 steel regarding weldability and moderate strength.
  • S235JR Steel (European EN Standard): S235JR is a structural steel grade specified in the European EN 10025-2 standard. It has a carbon content of a maximum of 0.17% and contains elements such as manganese (Mn), phosphorus (P), sulfur (S), and silicon (Si). S235JR exhibits similar characteristics to Q235 steel regarding weldability and moderate strength.
  • SS400 Steel (Japanese JIS Standard): SS400 is a commonly used structural steel in Japan, defined in the Japanese JIS G3101 standard. It has a carbon content of up to 0.21% and contains elements such as manganese (Mn), phosphorus (P), sulfur (S), and silicon (Si). SS400 shares similarities with Q235 steel in terms of weldability and moderate strength.


Q235 Steel: Q235 steel is widely used in structural frameworks, support structures, and metal components in various industries, including construction and manufacturing.

A36 Steel: A36 steel finds application in construction, bridges, and general structural purposes in the United States.

S235JR Steel: S235JR is utilized in structural applications such as building structures, bridges, and machinery in Europe.

SS400 Steel: In Japan, SS400 is commonly used in structural applications, including building structures, bridges, and machinery.

Advantages of Q235 Steel:

Cost-effectiveness: Q235 steel is known for its affordability, making it a cost-effective choice for many applications.

Versatility: Q235 steel offers a balance of strength, weldability, and flexibility, making it suitable for various structural and manufacturing applications.